Cooked chicken from birds grown and raised in China soon will be headed to America — in a trade deal that's really about beef.
Commerce Secretary Wilbur Ross announced Thursday night that the U.S. was greenlighting Chinese chicken imports and getting U.S. beef producers access to China's nearly 1.4 billion consumers. But the deal is raising concerns among critics who point to China's long history of food-safety scandals.
The Chinese appetite for beef is huge and growing, but American beef producers have been locked out of that market since a case of mad cow disease cropped up in the U.S. in 2003. In response, many countries, including South Korea, Japan, Mexico and China, banned imports of U.S. beef.
China was the only one of those nations to not eventually lift its ban — and that's a big deal.
"It's a very big market; it's at least a $2.5 billion market that's being opened up for U.S. beef," Ross said in announcing the trade deal.
Many people long had seen China's refusal to lift its ban on U.S. beef imports as a negotiating tactic, a tit for tat aimed at allowing Chinese chicken imports into the United States. The negotiations that led to the new trade deal have been going back and forth for more than a decade, stalled at one point by worries in Congress over China's food-safety practices.
American beef producers are rejoicing that the process has finally resulted in allowing them to send beef to China.
"After being locked out of the world's largest market for 13 years, we strongly welcome the announcement that an agreement has been made to restore U.S. beef exports to China," Craig Uden, president of the National Cattlemen's Beef Association, said in a statement. "It's impossible to overstate how beneficial this will be for America's cattle producers, and the Trump administration deserves a lot of credit for getting this achieved."
The U.S. should be cleared to export beef to China by mid-July. That's also the deadline for the U.S. to finalize rules for the importation of cooked chicken products from China. Why cooked chicken instead of raw?
"For a country to be able to ship meat and poultry products into the U.S., they have to demonstrate that their food-safety inspection system is equivalent to the system here in the U.S.," explains Brian Ronholm, who served as deputy undersecretary for food safety at the U.S. Department of Agriculture under the Obama administration.
"The equivalency determination process for China as it relates to processed [cooked] chicken products had been underway, and this deal expedites this process," he says. "China also is seeking equivalency for their inspection system for slaughter facilities, but that will be a longer process."
Given the many outbreaks of avian flu China has experienced, there are also worries that if raw Chinese poultry were processed in the U.S., it could potentially contaminate American plants or somehow spread to birds here in the States.
Tony Corbo, a senior lobbyist for the food campaign at Food & Water Watch, an environmental advocacy group, has been raising concerns about efforts to open the U.S. market to Chinese chicken imports for years. He questions the Chinese government's ability to enforce food-safety standards, given its poor track record.
That record includes rat meat being sold as lamb, oil recovered from drainage ditches in gutters being sold as cooking oil, and baby formula contaminated with melamine that sickened hundreds of thousands of babies and killed six. In 2014, a Shanghai food-processing factory that supplied international restaurant brands including McDonald's and KFC was caught selling stale meat, repackaged with new expiration dates.
Corbo points out that last December, China's own Food and Drug Administration reported it had uncovered as many as a half-million cases of food-safety violations just in the first three quarters of 2016.
That said, the USDA has gone to China to inspect plants that would process the chicken to be shipped to America. But Corbo finds little comfort in that. "You don't know from moment to moment how China is enforcing food-safety standards," Corbo says.
In recent months, a team from the USDA's Food Safety and Inspection Service has traveled to China to train Chinese officials in meat safety.
One thing Thursday's trade deal did not address: U.S. poultry exports to China. The U.S. used to send a lot of chicken feet over to China, where they are a delicacy. But China banned U.S. chicken imports in 2015, after an outbreak of avian flu in the Midwest.
China "was a $750 million market just a few years ago, and now it's essentially zero. It was one of our most important markets," says Jim Sumner, president of the USA Poultry and Egg Export Council.
But Sumner isn't worried about the new competition from Chinese chicken in the U.S. In fact, he welcomes it as an important step in reopening the Chinese market to U.S. poultry producers.
"Trade is a two-way street," he says.
It's not clear how soon after mid-July we can expect to see cooked chicken products from China in U.S. supermarkets. Sumner says he doesn't expect the product to overwhelm store shelves, because the economics of raising chickens in China and then shipping them to America still favors U.S. producers.
Maria Godoy is a senior editor with NPR News and host of The Salt. She's on Twitter: @mgodoyh
AUDIE CORNISH, HOST:
We're going to focus now on one particular change that's coming as part of this U.S.-China trade deal, the idea that U.S. will import cooked chicken from China. And joining us to talk more about it is Maria Godoy. She's editor of NPR's food blog The Salt. Welcome to the studio.
MARIA GODOY, BYLINE: Thanks, Audie.
CORNISH: So just how did this part of the deal come to be?
GODOY: So as we just heard, this chicken story is really about beef. Back in 2003, the U.S. had a case of mad cow disease. And as a result, lots of countries banned imports of U.S. beef like Mexico and South Korea, lots of countries including China. Eventually, all those countries lifted the ban on U.S. beef except for China. And that's a big deal because China has a huge and growing appetite for beef. And it's a big market that up until now U.S. beef producers have been locked out of.
Now, lots of people have seen China's refusal to lift the ban on beef as a kind of negotiating tactic. Basically, we lift the ban and you let in our chicken. So it's been going on for a while. It's gone to the World Trade Organization. And now finally there's a deal. And beef producers here are really happy.
CORNISH: OK. But again, this is now about chicken.
CORNISH: And what's the difference between, like, the cooked issue versus raw?
GODOY: That's a really good question. So what we're talking about here are imports of cooked chicken from China of chicken that was born and raised in China. And it really goes to concerns about avian flu. China has had many, many outbreaks of avian flu. And there are concerns that if you brought in raw poultry from China, it could somehow contaminate American poultry processing plants and maybe even spread to U.S. flocks.
CORNISH: So which voices are raising safety concerns then about cooked chicken from China actually coming now into the U.S.?
GODOY: Well, some environmental groups have been raising concerns for a long time. This deal has been in the works really on and off for over a decade. And China has a pretty bad track record when it comes to food safety, stories of things like rat meat being sold as lamb. And just last December, China's own food and drug administration reported it had uncovered half a million cases of food safety violations just in the first three quarters of 2016.
So the USDA has gone over there and inspected plants that would process the chicken. They say they're OK. And in recent months, U.S. inspectors have gone over to train their Chinese counterparts in food safety.
CORNISH: That's because we also export poultry to China, right? I mean, we're in this business.
GODOY: Funny enough, we used to, but U.S. poultry producers used to send a lot of chicken feet over to China. It's a delicacy there. The market has been worth as much as $750 million a year for the U.S. poultry industry, but China banned U.S. chicken imports after the U.S. had an outbreak of avian flu in 2015. And the new announcement doesn't address that.
CORNISH: All right. So looking ahead, when can we expect these imports?
GODOY: That's a big question. Basically, we won't even have a rule on how these imports will take place until mid-July, and then it's anywhere after that.
CORNISH: That's Maria Godoy, editor of NPR's food blog The Salt. Thanks so much.
GODOY: Thank you, Audie.
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